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Racial and Ethnic Variation in PSA Testing and Prostate Cancer Incidence Following the 2012 USPSTF..

Kevin H Kensler, Claire H Pernar, Brandon A Mahal, Paul L Nguyen, Quoc-Dien Trinh, Adam S Kibel, Timothy R Rebbeck

Published:04 November 2020

PMID: 33146392 PMCID: PMC8168268 (available on 2021-11-04) DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djaa171


Background: The 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation against routine prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing led to a decrease in prostate cancer screening, but the heterogeneity of its impact by race and ethnicity remains unclear.

Methods: The proportion of 40- to 74-year-old men who self-reported receiving a routine PSA test in the past year was estimated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2012-2018). Odds ratios (ORs) of undergoing screening by race and ethnicity were estimated, adjusting for healthcare-related factors. Prostate cancer incidence rates and rate ratios (IRRs) by race and ethnicity were estimated using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry data (2004-2017).

Results: PSA testing frequencies were 32.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 31.7% to 32.8%) among non-Hispanic White (NHW), 30.3% (95% CI = 28.3% to 32.3%) among non-Hispanic Black (NHB), 21.8% (95% CI = 19.9% to 23.7%) among Hispanic, and 17.7% (95% CI = 14.1% to 21.3%) among Asian and Pacific Islander men in 2012. The absolute screening frequency declined by 9.5% from 2012 to 2018, with a larger decline among NHB (11.6%) than NHW men (9.3%). The relative annual decrease was greater among NHB (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.84 to 0.88) than NHW men (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.89 to 0.90; Pheterogeneity = .005), driven by a larger decline among NHB men ages 40-54 years. The NHB to NHW IRR for total prostate cancer increased from 1.73 (95% CI = 1.69 to 1.76) in 2011 to 1.87 (95% CI = 1.83 to 1.92) in 2012 and has remained elevated, driven by differences in localized tumor incidence. Metastatic disease incidence is rising across all racial and ethnic groups.

Conclusions: The frequency of prostate cancer screening varies by race and ethnicity, and there was a modestly steeper decline in PSA testing among younger NHB men relative to NHW men since 2012. The NHB to NHW IRR for localized prostate cancer modestly increased following 2012.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

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