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Prostate cancer age-standardised incidence increase between 2006 and 2016 in Gauteng Province...

N Cassim, A Ahmad, R Wadee, T R Rebbeck, D K Glencross, J A George

PMID: 33404002 DOI: 10.7196/SAMJ.2020.v111i1.14850


Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading male neoplasm in South Africa (SA) and is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer among men globally. Age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) vary by up to 189-fold globally, with an ASIR of 68.0 per 100 000 in 2018 in SA.

Objectives: To describe PCa among men undergoing prostate biopsy in Gauteng Province, SA.

Methods: We undertook a retrospective descriptive study using prostate biopsy data collected from the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) database between 2006 and 2016. We extracted the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) clinical terms morphology and topography codes to assign histological findings using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology. PCa was defined as adenocarcinoma with a reported Gleason Score (GS). The new grade group (GG) based on the GS is defined as follows; (i) GG1 for a GS ≤6; (ii) GG2 for a GS of 3 + 4 = 7 ; (iii) GG3 for a GS of 4 + 3 = 7; (iv) GG4 for a GS of 8; and (v) GG5 for a GS ≥9. Higher-grade disease was defined as GG4 and GG5 (GS ≥8), in line with local guidelines. We reported associations of PCa with a GS ≥7 with age and race and used provincial and world standard population data to determine annual ASIRs.

Results: We identified 22 937 biopsies referred to the NHLS between 2006 and 2016. Of the 6 448 biopsies (39%) with a PCa finding for black Africans, 46% were diagnosed with high-risk PCa compared with 36 - 40% for other race groups (p<0.0001). Black Africans were more likely than whites to have GG4 or GG5 PCa (odds ratio 1.45; 95% confidence interval 1.27 - 1.67). The ASIR increased from 44.9 per 100 000 in 2006 to 57.3 per 100 000 in 2016.

Conclusions: Black African men were significantly more likely to present with PCa with a GS ≥8 (GG4 and GG5) compared with the other racial groups in Gauteng. The ASIR increased dramatically during the study period, perhaps as a result of increased screening and awareness. There is a need for additional research to better understand why black African men present with higher-grade disease.

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