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Evaluation of prostate cancer characteristics in four populations worldwide

Charnita M Zeigler-Johnson, Hanna Rennert, R Devi Mittal, Mohamed Jalloh, Rajeev Sachdeva, S Bruce Malkowicz, Anil Mandhani, B Mittal, Serigne M Gueye, Timothy R Rebbeck

First published: Jun 2008

PMID: 18570709 PMCID: PMC3072889


Introduction: Prostate cancer is common around the world, but rates of advanced disease differ substantially by race and geography. Although a major health issue, little is known about prostate cancer presentation in West Africa and India compared to the United States (US).

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare prostate tumor characteristics in four populations of men from the US, Senegal and India.

Materials and methods: We recruited prostate cancer patients from four hospital-based populations. The sample included 338 African-Americans, 1265 European-Americans, 122 Asian Indians, and 72 Senegalese. Questionnaire and medical record data were collected on each participant.

Results: We found significant differences in age at diagnosis, BMI, and PSA levels across the groups. Senegalese and Indian men had a higher probability of high stage (T3/T4) disease compared to US men. Gleason grade was significantly higher in Asian Indians compared to other populations. African-Americans, Senegalese, and Asian Indians had a significantly higher probability of metastatic disease compared to European Americans. The odds ratios (OR) for metastasis were consistently higher in Asian Indians compared to American cases. As only 19/72 Senegalese were assessed for metastasis, OR could not be determined for metastasis.

Conclusions: These results suggest that there are significant geographical and ethnic differences in the presentation of prostate cancer. Men in developing countries tend to present with advanced disease compared to US men. Identifying risk factors for advanced disease may help to decrease the rate of poor prostate cancer outcomes and associated mortality worldwide.

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